Dual Minimum Miscibility Pressure – Core Flooding Apparatus
Our dual system provides the capability to determine the minimum miscibility pressure of a reservoir fluid with a selected injection gas using the slim tubing technique. Additionally, the core flooding capability allows for absolute and effective permeability measurements in core samples, and the assessment of the performance of water flooding and a vast variety of EOR processes including, but not limited to chemical flooding, gas injection, foam flooding, WAG schemes, nano-particles injection and cross-linked gels for conformance improvement. The apparatus also allows for the sampling of the produced fluids for additional testing. The equipment provides the operator with a computer controlled system to track upstream and downstream pressure, volume of samples in the accumulators, total mass of produced fluids and pressure drop across the core (only for the core flooding section) as a function of time. It is comprised of an oven enclosing three accumulators that are filled with the fluids to be injected. For the MMP determination, they contain the injection gas, toluene for cleaning purposes and an oil sample stored at reservoir/test pressure. For the core flooding tests, they contain the reservoir oil, water and EOR agent. The system also includes a sight glass, a computer controlled injection pump for accurate setting of fluid injection rates, a back pressure regulation system, a separator, and a gas measurement system. A smaller oven with internal heat exchange coil is also incorporated prior to the gas measurement system to prevent liquid fall out. The equipment can accommodate test conditions up to 9,500 psig pore pressure and 10,000 psig overburden pressure at 350 degree Fahrenheit.
Core Flooding Apparatus
Our core flooding apparatus provides temperature controlled environment and accurate back pressure regulation that allows us to simulate reservoir temperature and pressure conditions for our core flood experiments. The equipment incorporates accurate syringe pumps for fluid injection and control of overburden pressure. A set of pressure transducers allows for accurate measurement of pressure drop across the core. Three accumulators facilitate the storage of a variety of fluids to be injected and several pressure gauges located in strategic points provide pressure readings. This displacement set up allows for absolute and effective permeability measurements in core samples, and the assessment of the performance of water flooding and a vast variety of EOR processes including, but not limited to chemical flooding, gas injection, foam flooding, WAG schemes, nano-particles injection and cross-linked gels for conformance improvement. . The main advantage of this equipment is that it can be easily customized to accommodate different tests of a variety of processes providing the versatility required in a research oriented laboratory.
Our aluminum-carbon composite hydrostatic core holders can handle 1″, 2″, and 4″ cores of various lengths up to 6″. The core holders are designed with unique floatable distribution plug which insures solid contact between the distribution plug and irregular-length cores. Another feature available is dual injection ports which allow two fluids to be injected simultaneously into the core sample and mixed at the core face rather than in the injection line.
The maximum working pressure and temperature of our core holders can reach up to 10,000 psi and 300 degree Fahrenheit respectively. These core holders are mainly used for CO2 flood studies, surfactant-polymer studies, polymer studies, relative permeability studies, and other types of enhanced oil recovery processes. Since the materials used to construct the core holders are compatible with the CT scanner, we are able to use them for dynamic core flood front tracking, flow profiling, changes in saturations, and conformance studies in our labs. Table below is a summary of our available core holders.
Core Holder # Diameter Size Material CT Scanner Compatibility
1 1″ Aluminum-Carbon Composite Compatible
2 1″ Aluminum Compatible
3 2″ Aluminum-Carbon Composite Compatible
4 4″ Aluminum-Carbon Composite Compatible
5 4″ Ultra heavy stainless steel Not Compatible
Anton Paar DMA 4100-M Density Meter
Our DMA 4100 M instrument is a density meter, which allows accurate determination of fluid density in a wide range of temperatures. The device also displays the density in a variety of forms as °API and specific gravity. The measurement is based on the oscillating U-tube method. The instrument is equipped with the world’s most advanced digital density measurement technology that ensures accuracy, provides automatic error detection, offers easy-to-use touch screen user interface, and allows quality data acquisition and management.
YSI Professional Plus Device
Our YSI Professional Plus handheld multiparameter meter provides extreme flexibility for the measurement of a variety of combinations for dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, salinity, resistivity, TDS, pH, ORP, pH/ORP combination, ammonium (ammonia), nitrate, chloride and temperature. Key features of the YSI Professional Plus include: 5,000 data-set memory, graphic display with detailed Help functionality, recalibration prompts, user defined fields, detailed GLP, auto stable, Hold All Readings Functions, safe and easy data management.
Oxor® III Oxygen Analyzer
The Oxor® III is a portable analyzer designed to detect and display concentrations of oxygen gas between 0 and 20.9%. The analyzer is capable of testing for oxygen in both ambient room air, and in the flue-gas stream of fossil-fuel fired furnaces and boilers.
Teledyne ISCO Syringe Pump
Our Teledyne Isco syringe pumps give precise and reliable metering for a wide range of applications. They are compatible with fluids of varying viscosities and are mainly used for core flooding, reactant feeding, and pumping supercritical fluids. Our lab is equipped with different models of series D syringe pumps to accommodate variety of operational requirements. The pumps controller offers many different operating modes and features. The standard operating modes are: constant flow, constant pressure, flow or pressure programming, and external control. Table 1 below summarizes the available syringe pumps in our labs, their specifications, and their main applications.
Model Cylinder Capacity Flow Rate Range Maximum Pressure Applications
260D 266.05 ml 0 ml/min to 107 ml/min 7,500 psi Supercritical fluids
500D 507.38 ml 0 ml/min to 204 ml/min 3,750 psi Wide range of chemical feed
Haskel AG-152 International Air Driven Gas Booster
The air-driven gas booster in our lab is a single stage – single acting system that offers a flexible and efficient source for delivering high pressure gases. The booster provides an economical means of boosting pressure in common laboratory operations. Additionally, the booster is modified with a 5 ¾” low permeability seal for CO2 gas service. The gas booster is designed to operate at a maximum gas supply pressure of 20,000 psig and a minimum gas supply pressure of 250 psig. Control of the maximum outlet pressure is accomplished with the use of an air drive pressure regulator.
Our ultrasonic cleaner provides quick and effective cleansing for our laboratory equipment and tools. It is equipped with heating functions that can reach a maximum temperature of 80 degree Celsius, a digital timer control system and a 12,000 mL tank for convenient professional cleaning.
Our Back Pressure Regulators (BPR) are of the externally dome-loaded type, which controls the upstream back pressure to a desired set point pressure that has been applied to its dome. It can be used to regulate the upstream pressure of gases or liquids during flow studies, PVT studies, supercritical fluid tests and batch and continuous flow reactors. It can be used to control the flow of either single or multi-phase flow and operates on the principle of balanced pressures. The BPRs in our lab are equipped with a Teflon diaphragm capable of holding pressure up to 10,000 psi. The mechanism of the BPR can be described as following: gas is injected into the dome of the regulator at the desired set point pressure. This pressure will seal off the fluid or gas flow from the process. Once the process pressure into the regulator exceeds the dome pressure, the Teflon diaphragm will flex and allow the fluids and gas to pass, thus maintaining the process pressure. When the pressure of the process drops below the dome pressure, the diaphragm will again seal off the process and maintain the pressure.
Our desiccator is a chamber that allows for complete evacuation of air by an attached vacuum pump. This chamber and evacuation process serves multiple purposes, including the withdrawing of air trapped in the pores of a core sample placed within the chamber, allowing the sample to be re-saturated with water or another desired fluid. Alternatively, the desiccator may be used to preserve moisture-sensitive items that are sensitive to temperatures or other parameters that prevent other means of storage.